Secondary education encompasses children aged 14 to 18. The last two years of secondary is also known as Higher Secondary (HS), Senior Secondary, or just the "+2" stage. The two phases of secondary education are each a vital phase for which a pass certificate is required. Hence, they are affiliated by central boards of education under HRD ministry, before one could follow higher education, including college or professional courses. UGC, NCERT, CBSE and ICSE directives affirm qualifying ages for candidates who want to take board exams. Those who have completed 15 years by May 30 for a specific academic year are eligible to appear for Secondary board exams, and those who have completed 17 years by May 30 are eligible to appear for higher secondary certificate board exams. Upon completing higher secondary, one could apply to higher education under UGC control like Engineering, Medical, and Business Administration. In India, secondary education is exam based and not course-based.
Secondary education is becoming an area of focus in developing nations, including India, which have so far focused on accomplishing universal elementary education. Secondary education, with regard to a policy, is a concurrent item, wherein it is within the purview of State as well as Central governments. State-level strategic planning for developing this sub-sector is crucial. Secondary education is not complete on its own. It is a foundation for entry into colleges and universities. Secondary education is thus considered as a passport for higher education. Hence, the key flaw of secondary education is it is directionless. Secondary education must have an objective related to practical life and the secondary schools must try to realize those objectives in every possible way.
The existing secondary education structure has aggravated the unemployment issue. Hence, we have to make secondary education very effective so that the students who have passed the phase do not only move to universities for admission. They should become economically self-sufficient through vocational skills of productive nature. Secondary education in India does not support in improving national production across the agricultural and industrial sectors.
Human resource training is not possible in the existing set-up of secondary education in India. Secondary education must prepare an adolescent for India’s technical and commercial development through the use of natural resources.
Personality development is also not feasible in the existing system of secondary education. Value education is necessary for character training but the secondary education in India does not attach any significance to education for values. Almost the entire responsibility of overcoming the challenges falls on the secondary school teachers.
Secondary school teachers must have a bachelor's degree Bachelor’s (B.Ed.), while also completing a student teaching experience. A master’s degree (M.Ed.) might be required for specific programs. You must choose an age group that you find most interesting. However, one must keep in mind that the higher the age level, the more strict the qualifications. Secondary school subjects consist of Hindi, English, foreign languages, math, science and technology, history, geography, civics, art, physical education, health, etc. They also provide elective vocational training and music.
Teacher recruitment in India at secondary levels is connected to state and national eligibility testing. You must clear the Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) to qualify to teach in a government-controlled school and certain private institutions. The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) provides foundation curriculums for the exam and determines the minimum eligibility requirements for every year.